Professional Profile

image for Maddox, Carol

Maddox, Carol

Professor, Pathobiology
Professor, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
College of Veterinary Medicine
2001 South Lincoln Avenue
1219 Vet Med Basic Sciences Bldg.
M/C 002
Urbana, IL  61802


  • BS, Animal Science, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
  • BS, Agricultural Education, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
  • MS, Veterinary Science, Pennsylvania State University, 1980
  • PhD, Microbiology, Pennsylvania State University, 1989

Academic Interests

Dr. Maddox has a strong interest in molecular diagnostic techniques and frequently updates the clinical microbiology services she supervises at the University of Illinois Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Dr. Maddox enjoys working with interns and residents on novel cases and clinical research projects. Increased caseloads originating from the marine mammal centers, zoos and aquariums, the UIC Biologic Resources Lab as well as the Zoo Path Program in Chicago and the Zoo and Exotic Medicine Program at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital lead to great diversity of specimens and pathogens.

Research Interests

Much of Dr. Maddox's research is applied, often the result of interesting diagnostic problems. Dr. Maddox's studies of virulence naturally led to an interest in vaccinology, studying equine strangles and the modified live Streptococcus equi ssp. equi vaccine. A qPCR assay for urine coupled with serum titers has increased the sensitivity and specificity of Leptospirosis diagnosis. Recent concerns over methcillin resistant Staphylococci has prompted our studies of pyoderma in canines.  In collaborations with faculty of the Animal Science Department and industry, we have developed a post-weaning colibacillosis model in pigs to evaluate fiber, clay, probiotics and plant extract additions to feeds to reduce enteric disease without the use of antibiotics.


show listBiography

Dr. Maddox has had an interest in mechanisms of bacterial virulence and pathogenesis. Her doctoral research examined the regulation of expression of K88 (F4) adhesin responsible for enterotoxigenic E. coli infections of neonatal swine. At the U. of Missouri (1989-1993), Penn State University (1993-2000) and at U. of Illinois (2000-present), her research focused on pathogen detection, virulence characteristics of Salmonella, E. coli, gastointestinal disease of livestock and and food safety. She has served for 4 years on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods contributing expertise in preharvest food safety. Collaboration with animal scientists has lead to studies of non-antibiotic means to control enteritis of swine. Other research efforts examine the control of virulence in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi,  and using site directed mutagenesis, we have developed attenuated modified live vaccine candidates. And recently, our lab has also been studying the significance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and other Staphylococus species causing canine pyoderma.

show listTeaching Statement

As our understanding of microbial pathogenesis expands teaching new material becomes a challenge. While we seek to provide the most recent information on molecular mechanisms of disease, we are also charged with providing the needed problem solving skills, practical and clinical knowledge to approach bacterial and fungal diseases. We are moving more towards a systems approach, integrating bacterial, viral and parasitic agents, using case presentations as a more interesting and interactive means to these ends.

show listCourses Taught

  • Case coordinator for VM607 Pathobiology II
  • Lecturer for VM612-615 Diagnostic Blocks
  • Lectuere for VM601 and VM 606 Diagnostic Rotations

show listResearch Biography

Dr. Maddox has had extramural funding from CFAR, several pharmaceutical companies and feed manufacturers as well as internally funded USDA HATCH and Animal Health grants. She has authored or coauthored 4 book chapters and 43 peer reviewed journal publications.

show listSelected Publications

  • J. R. Fischer, C.W. Maddox, R. Moxley, D. Kinden and M.A. Miller.   1994. Pathogenicity of a Bovine Attaching Effacing Escherichia coli Isolate Lacking Shiga-like Toxins. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 55(7):991-999
  • C.W. Maddox, K. Kasemsuksakul, W.H. Fales, C. Besch-Williford, C.A. Carson and K. Wise. 1997. Unique Salmonella choleraesuis surface protein affecting invasiveness: Possible inv related sequence. In: Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Enteric Diseases, pp. 341-348, (Vol. 412) ed. P.S. Paul, D.H. Francis, D.A. Benfield, Plenum Press, ISBN 0-306-45519-6.
  • S. Zhang and C.W. Maddox. 2000. Cytotoxic activity of coagulase negative staphylococci in bovine mastitis. Infection and Immunity 68(3):1102-1108
  • DebRoy, C. and C. W. Maddox 2001 Identification of virulence attributes of gastrointestinal Escherichia coli isolates of veterinary significance. Animal Health Research Reviews 1(2):129-140.
  • Maddox, C. W. 2003 Salmonella Detection Methods. Chapter 10 In: Microbial Food Safety in Animal Agriculture: Current Topics. eds. R. Isaacson and M. Torrence Iowa State Press, Ames, IA
  • Singer, R.S., S. Patterson, A. Meier, J. Gibson, H. Lee and C. Maddox 2004 Relationship between phenotypic and genotypic florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 48(10):4047-4049
  • Rao, S., C. W. Maddox, P. Hoien-Dalen, S. Lanka, R. M. Weigel 2007 Diagnostic accuracy of a class 1 integron PCR method in detection of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolated from swine production systems. J. Clin. Microb. 46: 916-920
  • S. Lanka, L. Borst, S. Patterson, C. Maddox. 2010. A multiphasic typing approach to subtype Streptococcus equi subspecies equi. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(6):928-936.
  • L. Borst, S.K. Patterson, S. Lanka, A.M. Barger, R.L. Fredrickson, C. W. Maddox. 2011. Evaluation of a commercially available modified-live Streptococcus equi subsp, equi vaccine in ponies. American Journal of Veterinary Research 72:1130–1138
  • L.B. Borst, S.K. Patterson, S. Lanka, M.M. Suyemoto, C.W. Maddox. 2011 Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a screen for attenuation of Lancefield group C streptococci and a model for streptococcal pathogenesis. Veterinary Pathology 2011 Oct 12 PMD 21997564 (Epub).
  • Song, M., Y. Liu, J.A. Soares, T.M. Che, O/ Osuna, C.W. Maddox, J.E. Pettigrew. 2012 Dietary clays alleviate diarrhea of weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science 90:345-360
  • Almeida, J.S., Liu, Y., Song, M., Lee, J.J., Gaskins, H.R., Maddox, C.W., Osuna, O., and Pettigrew, J.E. Escherichia coli challenge and one type of smectite alter intestinal barrier of pigs. 2013. J. of Animal Science and Biotechnology 12/2013; 4(1):52.
  • Jennifer A. Landolfi, Michele Miller, Carol Maddox, Federico Zuckermann, Jennifer N. Langan, and Karen A. Terio. 2014 “Differences in immune cell function between tuberculosis positive and negative Asian elephants” Tuberculosis (In Press)

show listCurrent Projects

  • Alterations in the control of Streptococcus equi virulence genes (covS and covR)- PI
  • Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and its role in canine pyoderma
  • Feed additives that aid in preventing colibacillosis in pigs - collaborator

show listPast Projects

  • Comparison of Leptospiral LPS rfb genes of serovars common among Illinois canines
  • Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococci recovered from raptors
  • Creation of new deletion vaccine candidates for a safer modified live strangles vaccine
  • Ability of probiotics to prevent wet-tail in hamsters
  • Efficacy of enrofloxacin, incorporated into 4 ear flushes, for control of canine otitis
  • Inhibition of Salmonella in poultry byproducts
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococci in canines, horses and their owners
  • Antimicrobial peptides in canine skin

show listGrants

  • American College of Veterinary Dermatology, (C. Metry, C. Maddox, L. Dirkilou, K. Campbell), Determination of enrofloxicin stability in 4 base ear cleaner solutions for topical treatment of otitis externa 2009-2010.
  • USDA- HATCH, (C. Maddox, Patterson) Investigations of CovS/CovR as a virulence factor of Streptococcus equi 2009-2010.
  • TTA - PetSmart Inc., Evaluation of Hamster Probiotics, 2009-2010.
  • TTA - Griffin Industries, Testing Proprietary Compound A and Compound B antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium (ST) 2010.

show listHonors and Awards

  • September 13, 2007 - Received the Dr. Gordon and Mrs. Helen Kruger Service Excellence Award
  • Co-chair of the Bacteriology/Mycology subcommittee and steering committees - American association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians

show listCreative Works

  • Developed an MIC90 program and website to search and monitor antimicrobial susceptibility trends among bacterial pathogens recovered at the U of IL VDL. It is searchable by host, organism, and/or antimicrobial.
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

show listProfessional Affiliations

  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, advisor
  • American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Bacteriology Subcommittee and Steering Committee, co-chair

show listOther Campus Affiliations

University of Illinois Institutional Biosafety Committee, co-chair

show listRecent Press

  • MacNeill, A., J.C. Steeil, O. Dossin, P.S. Hoien-Dalen, C. W. Maddox 2010 Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia abscessus in a dog: first reported case. Veterinary Clinical Pathology Manuscript ID VCP-09-1379 July 31 (Epub ahead of print)
  • Metry, C., P. S. Hoien-Dalen, C.W. Maddox, E.H. Thompson, D. A. Sutton, A.M. Romanelli, B. L. Wickes, A.L. MacNeill 2010 Subcutaneous Mycoleptodiscus Infection in an Immunosuppressed Dog J. Clin. Microb. . 48(8):3008-3011
  • Lanka, S., L. Borst, S. Patterson, C. Maddox 2010 A Multiphasic Typing Approach to Subtype Streptococcus equi subspecies equi J. Vet. Diag. Invest. Vol. 22 No. 6 (in press)

show listService Activities

  • Section Head for the Microbiology Section of the U. of IL Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory - 49% appointment
  • Member of the U. of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine Occupational Health and Safety Committee
  • Member of the U. of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital Infectious Disease Committee
  • Reviewer for J. of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigations, J. American Veterinary Medical Assoc., J. Clinical Microbiology, Veterinary Pathology, The Cornell Veterinarian, Journal of Dairy Science, Molecular and Cellular Probes, International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Zoonosis and Public Health