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Doggoned Separation Anxiety

Pet Column for the week of June 14, 1999

Office of Public Engagement
2001 S. Lincoln Ave.
Urbana, Illinois 61802
Phone: 217/333-2907
By Sarah Probst
Information Specialist

Dr. Jo Ann Eurell knows what it's like to have a dog with separation anxiety. "My son's
Lab, Mandy, had serious separation anxiety which escalated whenever we took her to
strange surroundings. Mandy would work herself up salivating and drooling when we tried
to leave. And she was capable of barking for a very long time," recalls the professor and
veterinarian retired from the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in Urbana.

Separation anxiety can be defined as increased fearfulness of the dog after the departure of
the owner. For example, after their owners leave for work, anxious dogs might bark or
howl, have bowel or bladder "accidents," or destroy things. Dogs that form intense
attachments with their owners, as Labradors do, are more likely candidates for separation

You can start preventing separation anxiety even before you get your puppy. First of all, do
not take the puppy away from its mother until it is 8 weeks old. "There is a greater
likelihood that your dog will develop separation anxiety if it is taken any earlier," says Dr.
Eurell. "Mandy, was taken at 6 weeks, and this may have contributed to her anxiety

Anti-separation anxiety training can begin when you first bring your puppy home. "When
you leave them, don't make a big deal about leaving. Don't prolong your departure by
talking to them a lot and arousing their anxiety. Leave them for short periods initially. When
you come back, again, don't make it a big deal. Just say 'nice puppy' and go on with your
routine," suggests Dr. Eurell.

If your dog already has unwanted separation behavior, training may be more difficult but is
definitely worth your effort. A high percentage of older dogs with separation anxiety were
shelter dogs or strays at some point in their life. Up to half of these dogs will improve with
training, but you may need to modify your routine to desensitize them to your leaving.

Dogs quickly learn your routine. "My dogs know that the last things I do in the morning are
spray perfume and brush my teeth. Both of these personal behaviors escalate their 'asking
to go along' behavior," says Dr. Eurell. "They also know that the last thing I do before we
go out for a walk at night is to turn off the computer. At least this time they know for sure
that they get to go along." Your dog figures out your routine in a very short time and may
respond with these 'can-I go-can-I-go-can-I-go' routines, which may be a prelude to more
destructive behavior.

With these dogs, your first effort is to assess the situation and eliminate cues. As with puppy
training, don't make a big deal out of leaving. Desensitize the dogs by leaving for a short
time and gradually work up to longer periods.

Another approach is to leave something to distract your pet. Video studies have shown that
separation anxiety behavior usually occurs within 10 to 30 minutes of your departure; after
that, dogs calm down. Kong toys make good distractions. Kongs are hollow rubber
cone-shaped toys. You can fill the center with kibble or cheese. It takes the dog awhile to
get to the treat, and meanwhile they are distracted from their separation anxiety.

Crate training is another good option. I used to crate my dog Maxie when I first moved to
an apartment with new roommates. Even though she'd shown destructive behavior only
when she was younger, I had nightmares about her getting into one of my roommate's
rooms and eating a new stethoscope or goose-down comforter. So until my roommates
and I felt comfortable with Maxie loose in the house by herself, the crate was her home
while we were away.

I fed her in her crate and never punished her by putting her in the crate when she was bad,
so it became something she associated with positive things ... sleep and food. Finally the
day came where we let her roam free while we were gone. I was a bit anxious myself while
we were away that day, hoping that when we came back from vet school there wouldn't be
a disaster. And I became more worried when Maxie didn't greet us at the door. And guess
where we found her ... downstairs asleep in her crate with the crate door open.

"Dogs are den animals, and the crate is a place they can call their own. If you crate from an
early age, you always use the crate as a positive experience, and you have a crate large
enough for the dog to comfortably stand, turn around, and lie down, then crates can be a
great training tool," explains Dr. Eurell. "Crates can also give you peace of mind that your
dog isn't able to destroy something or potentially injure themself while you're gone."

Seek out a veterinarian or professional trainer for other training ideas, but remember that
because of the circumstances when separation anxiety arises, most of the training will
require changes in your own behavior. It's not something a trainer can do for you.
Veterinary prescribed drugs are an option as well, but try training first.

Good luck and keep having fun with your devoted dog.