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Parasite Control in Foals


Pet Column for the week of January 10, 2000


Office of Public Engagement
2001 S. Lincoln Ave.
Urbana, Illinois 61802
Phone: 217/333-2907
By Sarah Probst
Information Specialist

Devising a parasite control program for your newest arrivals can be a confusing task,
especially when recommendations advise alternating the de-wormer used. "Rotating your
de-wormer--not by brand but among classes of drugs--can prevent parasites from
developing resistance, thus preventing development of a "superworm," explains Dr. Doug
Hutchens, veterinary parasitologist formerly at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary
Medicine in Urbana. Interval control programs (see table) for horses less than two years of
age, programs need to control Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum
(roundworms), Oxyuris equi (pinworms), and strongyles.

Strongyloides westeri may be a problem on farms with a high concentration of horses.
Dosing the mare with ivermectin within 24 hours after foaling best controls it. "Milk-borne
infections may occur, leading to enteritis and �foal heat� diarrhea in foals," says Dr.
Hutchens.

Roundworms (Parascaris equorum), also known as ascarids, are problems in horses less
than 2 years of age. Roundworm larvae migrate through the lungs and liver and mature in
the intestine. Larvae cause a summer cold syndrome, nasal discharge, dull hair coat,
"pot-belly" appearance, colic, or pneumonia that may get better with antibiotics but return
when antibiotics are discontinued. Treatment with an effective anthelmintic (such as
ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate, moxidectin, or daily feeding of pyrantel tartrate) will prevent
this problem. Younger horses, because they are exposed to roundworm eggs year-round,
need a daily or interval de-worming program.

If a heavy or severe infection is suspected, your veterinarian may suggest a de-wormer that
kills the parasite slowly and safely to give the foal�s body a chance to eliminate the worms.
Fenbendazole at double the normal dose (consult with your veterinarian) is a safe and slow
treatment. Piperazine, a fast ascarid kill product, should not be used in animals with a high
ascarid load; it could result in an ascarid-impaction colic or even perforation of the small
intestine. Moxidectin (Quest(c)), although effective against roundworms, should never be
used in foals under 4 months.

Yearlings and two-year-olds often suffer from pinworms, which cause intense itching
around the tail and lead to tail rubbing and development of a "rat tail"--loss of hair around
the tail head. Most de-wormers are effective against this parasite. Don't worry; these
pinworms are not transmissible to humans. Most tail rubbing in regularly de-wormed horses
is a compulsive vice caused by boredom rather than by parasites.

Environmental control will aid the de-worming program in controlling parasites:

1.Remove feces routinely to decrease transmission of eggs and larvae; do not dispose
of feces on pastures or near water or feed supply.
2.You may harrow pastures to break up fecal pats and kill larvae only in hot, dry
weather or below-freezing weather.
3.Quarantine all new additions to your herd and have your veterinarian perform fecal
examinations. De-worm with appropriate anthelmintics if indicated.
4.De-worm all horses at the same time.
5.Evaluate parasite control via fecal examination of 10 percent of horses two or three
times per year, 14 days after de-worming. "If environmental control is adequate and
de-worming is effective, less than 10 percent of samples obtained should contain
eggs," says Dr. Hutchens. If samples show significant egg counts, re-evaluate drugs
used and method of administration.

"Most do-it-yourself programs breakdown when the wrong drug is used or the drug is
improperly administered because the dose is too small or the horse spits it out," says Dr. R.
Dean Scoggins, retired equine Extension veterinarian at the College. The best way to develop an
effective parasite control program is to contact your local equine veterinarian, who will
know the prevalent parasites and transmission patterns in your area and can supervise an
effective parasite control program.

Table. Possible interval control program for foals*
Age in Months
Month
Efficacy Desired
Example of Anthelmintic
2
May
Roundworms, strongyles,
pinworms
Ivermectin
4
July
Roundworms, strongyles,
pinworms, Stongyloides
westeri
Oxibendazole
6
September
Roundworms, strongyles,
pinworms
Ivermectin
8
November
Roundworms, strongyles,

pinworms, and tapeworms
Pyrantel Pamoate
10
January
Roundworms, strongyles,
pinworms
**Moxidectin
12
March
Roundworms, strongyles,
pinworms
Oxibendazole
*Dose mare with Ivermectin 24 hours after foaling to prevent milk-borne infections of Strongyloides westeri.
**Moxidectin should never be used in foals under 4 months of age.